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The ancestors of the European bison population currently living in the world consisted of 12 animals only so they are closely related to each other. Inbreeding accompanying such close relationship may form the cause of decrease in vitality and consequent reduction in fertility. The present study analyses the degree of inbreeding in the European bison recorded in the Pedigree Book and determines the effect of such inbreeding on the animals' length of life and reproduction. Investigation was made of total of 3617 European bison of known descent on both the paternal and maternal side.