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Analyses of qualitative and quantitative variation in bacula and soft parts of the glans penis of 13 species of Ctenomys Blainville, 1926 from Argentina were used to suggest systematic and evolutionary relationships. The 13 species can be divided into spike-bearing (C. australis, C. azarae, C. porteousi, C. rionegrensis , and C. talarum) and spiny bulb-bearing species (C. dorbignyi, C. pearsoni, C. perrensi, C. roigi, Ctenomys sp. from Curuzu Laurel, Ctenomys sp. from M. F. Mantilla, and Ctenomys sp. from San Roque). Ctenomys yolandae is unique because it shows both spikes and spiny bulbs.