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This paper discusses the main deposits of the siliceous rocks in Central Europe and its vicinity, and the methods of their exploitation among the earliest farming communities. The meaning of the terms “deposit”, “mine”, and “mining” in the context of studies of the primitive communities is considered. The methods of extracting the raw materials, from the simple stholes to underground galleries, are distinguished and they are illustrated with examples of the mining workings. The chronology of mining of the siliceous rocks in Central Europe, based on 14C dates, is presented and compared with 14C dating for other regions of prehistoric mining in Europe. It is shown that the beginnings of mining of the early farming communities are connected with LBK (Danubian I) in the second half of the 5th Mill.b.c. The development of mining of the siliceous rocks lasts through the 4-3 Mill.b.c. and its decline takes place around the middle of the 2nd Mill.b.c.