Planned object

Title: Upper Vistula River: response of aquatic communities to pollution and impoundment. 1, Problem, outline of research and study area


Żurek, Roman ; Kasza, Henryk

Date issued/created:


Resource Type:



Upper Vistula River: problem, outline of research and study area ; Problem, outline of research and study area


Polish Academy of Sciences. Institute of Ecology


Polish Academy of Sciences. Institute of Ecology. Publishing Office

Place of publishing:

Dziekanów Leśny


Pages 107-122 : illustrations ; 27 cm ; Bibliographical references (pages 121-122)


The main disturbancies in hydrological and chemical features of the Upper Vistula River were discussed as well as geological structure and soils of its drainage basin. Examined section of the river is 337 km long. Catchment area of 28 000 km2 inhabited by 50 to 800 residents km-2 Three main problems concerning the river were considered: salinity, pollution and water management. Between 89 and 95 km the river obtaines salty water from coal mines and down the 95 km of the river - huge load of pollution by the Przemsza River. The inflow supplying 91% of Vistulian flow at this point. This unusual proportion is caused by far transfer of drinking water from submontainous part of the Vistula or its tributaries. Polluted water comes back to the river by Przemsza River. Vistula had here too much of suspension, phosphorus, nitrite and ammonia, and sometimes zinc. Water quality between 90 and 170 km was useless for cyprinid fishes according to EC directive. Vistula River and its aftluents flow through holocenic river terraces - covered with alluvial and fluvioglacial deposits. In the region of Cracow there are small areas of upper Jurassic origin (marls and lime) and from the Cretaceous period. Holocenic terrace of the river is covered by alluvial soils. On the left bank, between the Przemsza and Nida rivers, there are large areas of loesses. Investigations were carried out in the period between 3rd March 1997 and March 4th 1998. Also the present state of investigations of the Vistula River is discussed. In 1997 in the period from 7th to 15th of July extreme and disastrous flood in the Vistula occurred. Flows, which usually in Cracow (on 165 km) provide 50 to 100m3 s-1, grew up to 1430 m3 s-1 and during the culmination of wave up to 2400 m3 s-1.


Polish Journal of Ecology





Start page:


End page:


Resource Identifier:

ISSN 1505-2249


MiIZ PAN, call no. P.2840 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:


Creative Commons Attribution BY 3.0 PL license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 3.0 PL] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 3.0 PL license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Museum and Institute of Zoology of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Library of the Museum and Institute of Zoology of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Projects co-financed by:

Operational Program Digital Poland, 2014-2020, Measure 2.3: Digital accessibility and usefulness of public sector information; funds from the European Regional Development Fund and national co-financing from the state budget.

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